Latin America exploitation colonies predominated
For Prestes Motta & Caldas (2007, p.25), the study of the forms that cultural differences take in the area of organizations is relatively recent, and “the big question that remains refers to the way in which behavior of organizations varies culturally … Administrative situations are filtered by the set of beliefs and attitudes that each of us has “.Michael Porter (1993, p.126),
based on extensive research involving companies from more than fifteen countries, he also concluded that national circumstances affect the way companies are run; however, according to Arruda & Schneider (1996), that author does not draw attention to the role of culture whose relevance in creating competitive advantages, according to them, is significant.
History and economy of Latin America
as defining aspects of the nature of companies What really characterizes all the countries that make up Latin America and makes them different from North America is their historical formation, that is, the type of colonization they were subjected to, from the 16th century, by the European powers of that time.
- While in Canada and the United States what we call population colonies prevailed, in . In these, the objective
- was to meet the economic interests of the metropolises, in this case, Portugal and Spain. The wealth and well-being of
- the colonized peoples mattered little. What was imperative was the enrichment of the metropolis.
In the settlement colonies, the objectives were different; the colonizers came to the new lands in search of a new homeland and not to get rich. For this reason, both in Canada and in a good part of the United States, colonization did not occur with slave labor or with the objective of producing primary products at low cost.
It happened by huge masses of Europeans who left their continent due to the conflicts and religious wars of the time, and came to North America without commercial interests. The type of colonization applied in Latin America, exploitative andmercantilist, left profound marks in
Latin American societies that remain today.
Thus, for example, the location of the populations is placed, which was always established close to the coast and the ports that gave access to the metropolises; or else, the use of the best agricultural soils for the cultivation of export crops, while the worst remained for the production of food consumed by the local population itself. Also from that time comes the characteristic of the nations of the region to export their raw materials and import manufactured products from the metropolises.
Another legacy of the form of colonization in Latin America was the enormous concentration of rural lands in the hands of very few owners, characterizing the well-known “latifúndios”, which is a registered trademark of the region, for which there is a chronic lack of foodstuffs while millions of peasant families have no land to cultivate. Until the first half of the 19th century, the vast majority of Latin countries Americans were a colony of Spain or Portugal.
- But even before they became independent, they were economically subordinate to England, which dominated the world economy at the time. Thus, after the
- political independence of countless countries in the region, England took the place of the old metropolises and became the main destination for Latin
- American exports, always paying very low prices for them.
At the same time, it became the main supplier of expensive manufactured goods that were sold to Latin America. But even with this power in England, the great influence on the culture of Latin America as a whole came from the Iberian Peninsula (Hickson & Pugh, 1995, p.83). Despite this, in the various countries of the continent, there were other peoples who exercised great cultural influence, such as the Italians and Germans in Brazil and Argentina, or the Japanese in Peru and also in Brazil.
Throughout the 20th century,
England it weakened economically and militarily, and the United States assumed the role of great leader and capitalist power, strengthening its dominance over the entire continent. Despite the controversial claim that Latin America is a region subordinated to American economic and political interests, the truth is that, in recent decades,
- there have been several interventions by the United States to protect and guarantee the interests of multinational companies when the profits of these
- companies were threatened by political changes. All this situation of centuries of colonization has contributed a lot to
- deteriorate the social question. Thus, one of the main characteristics of the region is the enormous social inequality.
While in developed countries the richest 10% of the population in general have around 25% of national income, in Latin America the richest 10% are in general with 40%, and in some cases, as in Brazil, with more than 50%. On the other hand, while in the developed countries the poorest 60% have 35% to 40% of income, in Latin America this percentage is less than 20%.
These inequalities become tragic when we look at the conditions in which the country lives. population. Some quality of life indicators such as illiteracy rates, daily calorie consumption, life expectancy point out that Latin America in general is only better than Africa. The Latin American way of managing companies As we mentioned in the introduction,